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These sequences appear to be more closely related to those of chickens from Island Southeast Asia, specifically from Lombok, the Philippines, and Thailand (see Table 1).
This suggests that there were two mitochondrial lineages present in prehistoric Polynesian chicken populations.
A total of 37 chicken bones obtained from prehistoric archaeological sites dating from between 2900 and 500 years B. from five Polynesian archipelagos were obtained for use in our study.
Positive PCR amplification and DNA sequence was obtained for 12 of the 37 ancient samples attempted, resulting in a success rate of 32%, which is consistent with the degraded nature of biomolecules in ancient remains (24).
The radiocarbon date obtained for the El Arenal chicken bone was 622 ± 35 B.Analyses of pottery and other artifacts show that the site belongs to the El Vergel Cultural Complex of horticulturalist communities dating to the period between AD 10 (20). These remains provide the earliest evidence for the presence of chicken in the Americas.Three thermoluminescence dates on ceramics from the site place the occupation between AD 7 (D. Direct dating and ancient DNA analyses of these remains were therefore essential for identifying the origins and pre-Columbian provenience of chickens in Chile.In ancient material, these include an additional four sites that identify two haplogroups in prehistoric chickens.In total, SNPs were most common between sites 199 and 339.