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During the Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, Bengal was transformed into a cosmopolitan Islamic superpower and became a major trading nation in the world, often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.
Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate, but following the early conquest of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji and the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and Shah Jalal in East Bengal, it fully spread across the entire region.
The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to come from "Vanga", an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent.
It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southern West Bengal (India) and southwestern Bangladesh.
The suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al".