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Text or instant messages and emails between friends can also constitute cyberbullying if what is said is hurtful.The recent rise of smartphones and mobile apps have yielded a more accessible form of cyberbullying.It is expected that cyberbullying via these platforms will occur more often than through more stationary internet platforms.In addition, the combination of cameras and Internet access and the instant availability of these modern smartphone technologies yield specific types of cyberbullying not found in other platforms.Danah Boyd writes, "teens regularly used that word [drama] to describe various forms of interpersonal conflict that ranged from insignificant joking around to serious jealousy-driven relational aggression.Whereas adults might have labeled many of these practices as bullying, teens saw them as drama." Cyberbullying can take place on social media sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter.Victims of cyberbullying may not know the identity of their bully, or why the bully is targeting them.The harassment can have wide-reaching effects on the victim, as the content used to harass the victim can be spread and shared easily among many people and often remains accessible long after the initial incident.
Cyberbullying could be limited to posting rumors about a person on the internet with the intention of bringing about hatred in others' minds or convincing others to dislike or participate in online denigration of a target.Cyberstalking is a form of online harassment in which the perpetrator uses electronic communications to stalk a victim.This is considered more dangerous than other forms of cyberbullying because it generally involves a credible threat to the victim's safety.Manuals to educate the public, teachers and parents summarize, "Cyberbullying is being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material using a cell phone or the internet." Research, legislation and education in the field are ongoing.Research has identified basic definitions and guidelines to help recognize and cope with what is regarded as abuse of electronic communications.